The Galactic Federation of Free Alliances, also known as the Federal Galactic Republic, but most commonly the Galactic Alliance, was the galactic government directly following the New Republic. Incorporating most of the known galaxy, the Galactic Alliance was the first government to achieve this since the Galactic Empire. Between 2373 and 2374 NE, the term New Order was applied to the Alliance for a short period of time. The rest of the time it was referred to as the Old Order. It replaced the New Republic after the first war and a major player in the Second Multiverse War.
Governmental changes between the New Republic and the Galactic Alliance included a new constitution, a stronger judicial branch, and a better system of checks and balances that curbed the power that had been almost exclusively in the hands of the Senate. The new federalism properly defined the roles between the government and its member worlds.
The Galactic Alliance government was led by a Chief of State and a High Council that consisted of Jedis , Senators, and members of the Alliance's military and governmental leadership. The Jedi later withdrew from the High Council in favor of forming their own leadership body; the Jedi High Council. As such, the Alliance created an Advisory Council to replace the High Council.
The new alliance was a federal republic, properly defining the roles of both the federal government and the member worlds and states. A stronger federal system was the largest change in the overall structure of the government following the dissolution of the New Republic.
List of Chief of State
The Galactic Alliance's predecessor, the New Republic, had a very complex and diverse economy. The economy practically collapsed during the worse of the Chaos Wars, especially during the Reign of Terror. So immediately after the brutal campaign, the Alliance began massive reconstruction efforts throughout the galaxy, in the form of the Reconstruction Authority. The Authority was tasked with such things as re-terraforming Coruscant and finding a new homeworld for the Ithorians and other species that lost their homes to the Coalition and more.
Galactic Alliance Defense Force
The military arm of the government was known as the Galactic Alliance Defense Force. Led by the Supreme Commander, the Defense Force consisted of the Galactic Alliance Navy and Army. These federally controlled forces were tasked with numerous roles, ranging from securing hyperlanes to protecting key worlds, as well as facing any aggressors that sought to attack or harm the Alliance. Its structure was extremely similar to the older New Republic Defense Force, though its size was significantly larger, due to the build up of warships during the war. During the latter stages of the Reign of Terror, the government maintained four strategic fleets. Their tactics often were hit-and-fade strikes popularized by the Rebel Alliance during the Galactic Civil War, due in part to retired Admiral Gial Ackbar helping reorganize the Defense Force in the months leading up to the Battle of Ebaq 9.
Five years after the end of the war, the Defense Fleet seemed to have built back up to pre-war strength, with at least five strategic fleets under the government's command. The Galactic Alliance Fifth Fleet, under Bothan Admiral Nek Bwua'tu, was assigned to patrol the Hydian Way, though it was redeployed during the Killik crisis. Several years later during the Second Multiverse War, the Defense Force began fielding numerous new units, including the Galactic-class battle carrier, Mon Cal heavy carrier, and the Aleph-class starfighter.
Even though the Hapes Consortium joined the Galactic Alliance, it still retained its own military forces for personal defense. The Hapan Royal Navy was autonomous of the Galactic Alliance Defense Force, as evidenced by the Hapan protection of the Killik colonies a year prior to the outbreak of the Swarm War. However between the Swarm War and the Second Multiverse, the Hapan Navy supplied two fleets which temporarily served under the control of the Galactic Alliance government.
Imperial Remnant Military
Like the Hapes Consortium, the few Imperial Remnants that joined the Alliance retained their boundaries and a degree of autonomy. As a result, the Remnant retained its own starfleet as well. Like the Hapan navy, the Remnant forces were semi-autonomous of the federally controlled Alliance forces.
Still, Remnant warships often worked alongside Alliance warships. During the Battle of Yuuzhan'tar, the Galactic Alliance Fourth Fleet was composed of a mix of Alliance warships and Star Destroyers under the command of Grand Admiral Gilad Pellaeon.
Some key member worlds, like Corellia, maintained private navies and militaries for personal defense. These forces were under the direct control of these member states and seemed to be at least partially autonomous of the Defense Force. By the time of the Second Multiverse War, new laws passed by the Alliance government sought to reduce the size of these planetary forces in favor of the more centralized Galactic Alliance Defense Force.
Society and Culture
The Galactic Alliance had a very diverse culture like its predecessor, the New Republic. The Alliance had a liberal policy towards art and culture. The dominant aesthetic style of Galactic Alliance was opulence and ornamentation.